下面Meeloun小编为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The Idiot，供大家参考学习，这篇论文讨论了小说《白痴》。《白痴》是陀思妥耶夫斯基的代表作之一，它给读者展现了十九世纪六十年代后俄国众生的道德心理。《白痴》揭示在金钱势力的渗透下，道德感情的沦丧，家庭纽带的断裂，健全人格的退化以及关于美的毁灭等多方面社会现实。揭露了资本主义迅猛发展以及它对俄国的巨大冲击，金钱对生活领域的渗透。在小说中作者借助人物之口，把自己身处的时代称作是“罪恶和铁路的时代”，而《白痴》就是对这个“罪恶与铁路的时代”的灵魂审判。
What kind of path Russia should take after abolishing serfdom is Russia's most important issue in the Sixties or seventies of the 19th century and the focus of its political and ideological struggles. Under the background of this struggle, Dostoevsky shows the bourgeois social relations as well as the material life and mental outlook of every stratum from the perspective of the moral psychology of all sentient beings. This shows the special characteristics of the times in the 19th century after the serf reform, and puts forward the fundamental problems in Russia's development. The work of "idiot", written in 1868, is one of the masterpieces of Dostoevsky's mature writing. After 10 years of exile and hard labour, Dostoevsky deeply felt the real horror of life. 10 years of experience to broaden their horizons, understand the sufferings of the people, so as to deepen its philosophical thinking of life. However, due to the failure of the European revolution in 1848 and the bankruptcy of the petty-bourgeois socialist ideology, Dostoevsky's early contradictory ideas were more acute, abandoning socialism, opposing violence and opposing the revolution and then tending to be reactionary. In "The Idiot", the reflection of this contradiction is more obvious, on the one hand, Dostoevsky truly reflects the real society of Russia in the 1860s, through the excavation of the inner world of each character reflects the life state of all the social strata; On the other hand, the writer opposes the violent revolution and vigorously preaches the idea of "beauty saving the World" Thus shaped the Duke of Myshkin, the Christ-like saint. Based on the research of "idiot", the author intends to discuss the role of structure in the establishment of text theme from the point of view of character structure.
"Idiot" is divided into four parts and an end, a large structure, rich in content. Take the first to second part as an example: the first part of a total of 16 chapters, narrative nature, compact content, time span only from the first morning to the next morning or so. But in the location from the train to General Yepanchin's home, and then to Gania's house, and finally to the Philipovna's birthday party, the next three locations for the center of different social strata of the characters, composed of a portrait of the people at the same time show the soul of each person. As the plot progresses, it complements past experiences and backgrounds through the narrative of the characters. These include the mastery of the Yepanchin, such as the conversation at General's house, the clash at Gania's house, and the dramatic night at the Philipovna birthday party. The second part is divided into 12 chapters, compared with the first part of the narrative speed is significantly reduced, strengthening the character's thinking and psychological performance. With the complexity of the plot, the content gradually rich, the characters are more profound connotation, showing the people's inner entanglements, multiple consciousness staggered. Dostoevsky, through the chaotic, contradictory and complicated consciousness, penetrates into the darkest and most secret place in the spiritual field, broadens the range of the novel, and makes the reader see the dramatic soul of the character through his eyes.
In summary, the novel "idiot" characters are numerous, from the general, rich merchant to the poor family, from the Holy "Christ" to the Crazy "demon", from the noble miss to the orphan creature. Dostoevsky showed the readers the moral psychology of all the Russian beings after the 1860s. Revealing the infiltration of money forces, the loss of moral feelings, the breakdown of family ties, the deterioration of sound personality and the destruction of the United States and other aspects of social reality. Reveals the rapid development of capitalism and its great impact on Russia, the infiltration of money in the field of life. In the novel, the author uses the character's mouth to call his age "The Age of Sin and railroad" and "The Idiot" is the soul trial of this "age of Sin and railroad".
The novel does not take a person as the center, fully depicts the events around the character. When the Duke of Myshkin or the Philipovna left Petersburg, the story entered or briefly described or later recalled, without following the characters away from Petersburg. So I think "idiot" the real protagonist should be the city-"Petersburg." From Myshkin and Rogoren by train into the haze of Petersburg began the story of the development of two people in turn to end the story. This kind of plot aggravated the novel to reflect the truth of the event, the author is not omniscient and omnipotent storyteller, but in the angle of the personification of Petersburg to tell the fate of the children in her arms. Myshkin is a specific point of view in Petersburg, from his acquaintance with Luo nuts on the train, alternate goodwill and leads to the story of the Philipovna Chardonnay. The visit to the last female Myshkin with the clan led to the conspiracy between Gania and General Yepanchin. Then to the duke in the residence and the Philipovna of the encounter, found that the Philipovna in the appearance of the pain, know that the Duke to save Philipovna as his obligation to take the initiative to come to the birthday party, then began in Petersburg life. Therefore, from the point of view of the plot, the novel is the center of Petersburg, Myshkin to the angle of the story, to dialogue will be linked to the people, the other into the protagonist's vision. Then the protagonist into other people's vision, let the protagonist understand the essence of all things, that is, the author to explain things, while allowing readers to participate in the life of Petersburg.
According to the composition of the plot, the tragic fate of Philipovna is the foundation and core of the plot of the novel. From the beginning of the two male hero arrived by train, is to uncover the veil of Petersburg, Philipovna is one of the most eye-catching and representative figure. All the heroine's behavior has the level, the rhythm promotion and decides the plot development. The purpose of Myshkin and Luo's kernel image is to follow Nasta Philipovna to profoundly show the helplessness of the tragic characters in front of fate. Until Saga Philipovna died, the other characters also withdrew. Nasta Xia Philipovna and Yepanchin General's decidedly opposite, reflects the Philipovna rebellion consciousness, is the dignity and hypocrisy, despicable confrontation. To a certain extent, deepen the theme, make personal tragedy rise to the surrounding environment and even the whole era of Russia's tragedy. Similarly, the conflict between Philipovna and Gania is the antithesis of money. Gania bear the double pressure of shame and condemnation, and then only hatred for money and Philipovna. This hatred is not for the Philipovna, so she is the same as Gania, but someone else on the chessboard of a pawn, is the fate of the futile struggle. Like the spokes of a wheel, many spokes are assembled around the axis, and the axis is moved by the surrounding spokes. It can be seen that the fate of the Philipovna is determined by the special social environment of the the 1860s in Russia.
On the other hand, the interpretation of the subject is not only a profound study of the characters ' image, but also an analysis of the structure of the novel. Both the plot structure and the character structure are part of the work, which is the platform of the writer's elaboration thought. Through the above analysis, from behind the text to reproduce the author's intention, and then deepen the theme.